Rekha Rao MD

Jersey Neurocare Associates

732-360-2888

14 Woodward Dr
 Old Bridge, NJ 08857-3096

Patient Education

The following are some Neurological conditions that Dr. Rao treats

Headache

A headache is a common symptom that involves pain that is experienced in one or more areas of the head or face. Over 45 million people are affected by headaches each year and many of them include chronic headaches that last for weeks or months with no relief.

Headaches can be the result of a wide range of conditions and causes, including coughing, sneezing, fever, arthritis, depression, or even environmental changes. There are many different types of headaches, classified by the cause, location and severity of the pain. The most common types of headaches include: ...


Read More...
 

Cervical Laminectomy

A cervical laminectomy is a surgical procedure that can effectively relieve compression of the spinal nerves and so reduce the pain of spinal stenosis. Cervical spinal stenosis is a condition that involves a narrowing of the spinal column in the neck area. It often produces pain, cramping, weakness or numbness in the neck, shoulders or arms. This condition can develop as a result of injury to, or deterioration of, the discs, joints or bones within the spinal canal. Because the vertebrae of the neck are more capable of movement than any other area of the spine and because they are not only responsible for protecting the spinal cord, but for supporting the skull, surgical repairs in this area are a delicate matter. ...


Read More...
 

Cervical Medial-Branch Block

A cervical medial-branch block is an injection administered to diagnose and treat neck, upper-back, shoulder and facial pain, and headaches. The procedure is designed to both relieve symptoms and diagnose their source. By deadening pain signals in the medial-branch nerves (which transmit pain signals from the facet joints to the brain), it is possible to determine whether a particular facet joint (which connects two vertebra) is the source of the pain. ...


Read More...
 

Cervical Percutaneous Discectomy

Cervical percutaneous discectomy is a procedure that is performed to remove herniated or bulging disc material that is pressing on nerves or the spinal cord. The cervical spine is the portion of the spine that runs through the neck. When the nerves of the cervical spine are compressed, it causes pain and discomfort in the neck that may travel to the shoulder, arm and hand. The goal of a cervical percutaneous discectomy is to decompress the nerves by removing deviated-disc material and disc fragments. It is a minimally invasive procedure that involves making a very small incision and inserting a tiny surgical needle between the vertebrae, into the middle of the disc. Disc material is removed with the guidance of live X-ray imaging, and as a result, painful nerve pressure is relieved. ...


Read More...
 

Dementia

Dementia is not a single disorder, but rather a combination of age-related symptoms involving a loss of mental skills and deteriorating brain function. Dementia literally translates to "deprived of mind," and may be the result of several different underlying conditions, some of which are treatable and some of which are not. Patients with dementia gradually lose memory, communication skills, the ability to reason, and the facility to complete the tasks of everyday living. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Endoscopic Discectomy

A lumbar discectomy is a surgical procedure that is performed to remove herniated disc material from the lower back (lumbar), that is pressing on a nerve or the spinal cord. When this procedure is performed with the use of an endoscope, it is called a lumbar endoscopic discectomy. It is considered a minimally invasive procedure because only a small incision is necessary. In addition, the endoscope (a small metal tube with a camera and light on the end) provides direct visualization through magnified video images, as well as a passage way for the surgical tools, so the patient's muscles do not have to be torn or cut. As a result of the minimal damage to bone and muscle tissue, most people who have a lumbar endoscopic discectomy experience less surgical trauma, and a quicker recovery period, than those who undergo more-invasive traditional back surgery. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

A lumbar epidural steroid injection is a minimally invasive procedure for treating leg, buttock and lower back pain originating from the epidural space. The epidural space surrounds the dura, a membrane which protects the spinal cord and its nerves. The primary reasons for pain in this area are herniated or ruptured discs, stenosis, or sciatica all of which result in nerve compression. The pain may originate in any part of the lumbar region of the spine, including the coccyx, or tailbone, where it is referred to as caudal. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Facet-Joint Injections

Lumbar facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for lower-back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool to determine whether facet-joint inflammation is the source of the pain. Facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered either into the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting corticosteroid with a local anesthetic. Although the anesthetic provides only very temporary pain relief, the corticosteroid reduces inflammation and can relieve pain for up to a few years. Enduring pain relief from the injection is diagnostically significant, indicating that the pain originates in the facet joint that received the injection. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Percutaneous Discectomy

A lumbar percutaneous discectomy may be performed to remove herniated disc material that is pressing on nerves or the spinal cord. The goal of a lumbar percutaneous discectomy is to decompress the nerves by removing deviated disc material and disc fragments. It is a minimally invasive procedure that involves making a very small incision and inserting a tiny surgical needle between the vertebrae, into the middle of the disc. Disc material is removed and as a result, painful nerve pressure is relieved. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Puncture

A lumbar puncture, also known as a spinal tap, is most often performed as a diagnostic procedure, but may also be performed as a means to administer anesthetic or chemotherapy medications. When a lumbar puncture is performed for diagnostic purposes, a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord, is withdrawn from the lower portion of the spine for analysis. Analysis of CSF can help detect the presence or absence of several serious diseases. These diseases include: meningitis, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome and certain cancers. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Sympathetic Nerve Block

A lumbar sympathetic nerve block is administered to both diagnose and treat pain in the lumbar (lower) region of the spine. It is used to determine whether the lumbar sympathetic nerves, which carry pain impulses from the lower extremities, are the cause of the pain, and, in some cases, serves to eliminate that pain altogether. During the procedure, medication is injected into or around the lumbar sympathetic nerves on one side of the body. ...


Read More...
 

Migraine Headache

Migraines are chronic headaches that cause intense pain, and throbbing or pulsing sensations in the head. Along with severe head pain, some people also experience nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound. The pain and symptoms of a migraine may last from hours to days at a time. Most people experience recurring migraine headaches that may be triggered by stress, anxiety, hormonal changes, certain foods or changes in sleep patterns. Migraines are more common in women than men and they may develop as a result of genetic or environmental factors. Migraines can begin at any age, though most people experience their first migraine during adolescence. ...


Read More...
 

Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is a progressive motor system disorder that occurs when certain cells within the brain begin to degenerate or break down. In individuals with Parkinson's disease, the cells that produce a chemical called dopamine, gradually breakdown or die. Dopamine is a chemical that sends signals to the brain to control movement. As these cells diminish and the dopamine levels decrease, the disease progresses and patients gradually lose control of their movements. While there is no cure currently available for Parkinson's disease, there are treatments available to control symptoms and improve quality of life. ...


Read More...
 

Stroke

A stroke occurs when there is a reduction in the flow of blood to the brain. The lack of blood supply may be the result of a blockage in an artery or a burst blood vessel in the brain. A stroke deprives brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. A stroke is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention by a medical professional. Prompt treatment can minimize damage to the brain and prevent further complications. ...


Read More...
 

Vertigo

Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or dizziness, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting, that occurs as a result of problems within the brain or the inner ear. People with vertigo feel as if their surroundings are moving although no movement is actually occurring. Vertigo is one of the most common health problems in the United States; it affects many adults during their lifetimes. ...


Read More...


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Headache

A headache is a common symptom that involves pain that is experienced in one or more areas of the head or face. Over 45 million people are affected by headaches each year and many of them include chronic headaches that last for weeks or months with no relief.

Headaches can be the result of a wide range of conditions and causes, including coughing, sneezing, fever, arthritis, depression, or even environmental changes. There are many different types of headaches, classified by the cause, location and severity of the pain. The most common types of headaches include: ...


Read More...
 

Cervical Laminectomy

A cervical laminectomy is a surgical procedure that can effectively relieve compression of the spinal nerves and so reduce the pain of spinal stenosis. Cervical spinal stenosis is a condition that involves a narrowing of the spinal column in the neck area. It often produces pain, cramping, weakness or numbness in the neck, shoulders or arms. This condition can develop as a result of injury to, or deterioration of, the discs, joints or bones within the spinal canal. Because the vertebrae of the neck are more capable of movement than any other area of the spine and because they are not only responsible for protecting the spinal cord, but for supporting the skull, surgical repairs in this area are a delicate matter. ...


Read More...
 

Cervical Medial-Branch Block

A cervical medial-branch block is an injection administered to diagnose and treat neck, upper-back, shoulder and facial pain, and headaches. The procedure is designed to both relieve symptoms and diagnose their source. By deadening pain signals in the medial-branch nerves (which transmit pain signals from the facet joints to the brain), it is possible to determine whether a particular facet joint (which connects two vertebra) is the source of the pain. ...


Read More...
 

Cervical Percutaneous Discectomy

Cervical percutaneous discectomy is a procedure that is performed to remove herniated or bulging disc material that is pressing on nerves or the spinal cord. The cervical spine is the portion of the spine that runs through the neck. When the nerves of the cervical spine are compressed, it causes pain and discomfort in the neck that may travel to the shoulder, arm and hand. The goal of a cervical percutaneous discectomy is to decompress the nerves by removing deviated-disc material and disc fragments. It is a minimally invasive procedure that involves making a very small incision and inserting a tiny surgical needle between the vertebrae, into the middle of the disc. Disc material is removed with the guidance of live X-ray imaging, and as a result, painful nerve pressure is relieved. ...


Read More...
 

Dementia

Dementia is not a single disorder, but rather a combination of age-related symptoms involving a loss of mental skills and deteriorating brain function. Dementia literally translates to "deprived of mind," and may be the result of several different underlying conditions, some of which are treatable and some of which are not. Patients with dementia gradually lose memory, communication skills, the ability to reason, and the facility to complete the tasks of everyday living. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Endoscopic Discectomy

A lumbar discectomy is a surgical procedure that is performed to remove herniated disc material from the lower back (lumbar), that is pressing on a nerve or the spinal cord. When this procedure is performed with the use of an endoscope, it is called a lumbar endoscopic discectomy. It is considered a minimally invasive procedure because only a small incision is necessary. In addition, the endoscope (a small metal tube with a camera and light on the end) provides direct visualization through magnified video images, as well as a passage way for the surgical tools, so the patient's muscles do not have to be torn or cut. As a result of the minimal damage to bone and muscle tissue, most people who have a lumbar endoscopic discectomy experience less surgical trauma, and a quicker recovery period, than those who undergo more-invasive traditional back surgery. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

A lumbar epidural steroid injection is a minimally invasive procedure for treating leg, buttock and lower back pain originating from the epidural space. The epidural space surrounds the dura, a membrane which protects the spinal cord and its nerves. The primary reasons for pain in this area are herniated or ruptured discs, stenosis, or sciatica all of which result in nerve compression. The pain may originate in any part of the lumbar region of the spine, including the coccyx, or tailbone, where it is referred to as caudal. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Facet-Joint Injections

Lumbar facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for lower-back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool to determine whether facet-joint inflammation is the source of the pain. Facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered either into the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting corticosteroid with a local anesthetic. Although the anesthetic provides only very temporary pain relief, the corticosteroid reduces inflammation and can relieve pain for up to a few years. Enduring pain relief from the injection is diagnostically significant, indicating that the pain originates in the facet joint that received the injection. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Percutaneous Discectomy

A lumbar percutaneous discectomy may be performed to remove herniated disc material that is pressing on nerves or the spinal cord. The goal of a lumbar percutaneous discectomy is to decompress the nerves by removing deviated disc material and disc fragments. It is a minimally invasive procedure that involves making a very small incision and inserting a tiny surgical needle between the vertebrae, into the middle of the disc. Disc material is removed and as a result, painful nerve pressure is relieved. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Puncture

A lumbar puncture, also known as a spinal tap, is most often performed as a diagnostic procedure, but may also be performed as a means to administer anesthetic or chemotherapy medications. When a lumbar puncture is performed for diagnostic purposes, a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord, is withdrawn from the lower portion of the spine for analysis. Analysis of CSF can help detect the presence or absence of several serious diseases. These diseases include: meningitis, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome and certain cancers. ...


Read More...
 

Lumbar Sympathetic Nerve Block

A lumbar sympathetic nerve block is administered to both diagnose and treat pain in the lumbar (lower) region of the spine. It is used to determine whether the lumbar sympathetic nerves, which carry pain impulses from the lower extremities, are the cause of the pain, and, in some cases, serves to eliminate that pain altogether. During the procedure, medication is injected into or around the lumbar sympathetic nerves on one side of the body. ...


Read More...
 

Migraine Headache

Migraines are chronic headaches that cause intense pain, and throbbing or pulsing sensations in the head. Along with severe head pain, some people also experience nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound. The pain and symptoms of a migraine may last from hours to days at a time. Most people experience recurring migraine headaches that may be triggered by stress, anxiety, hormonal changes, certain foods or changes in sleep patterns. Migraines are more common in women than men and they may develop as a result of genetic or environmental factors. Migraines can begin at any age, though most people experience their first migraine during adolescence. ...


Read More...
 

Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is a progressive motor system disorder that occurs when certain cells within the brain begin to degenerate or break down. In individuals with Parkinson's disease, the cells that produce a chemical called dopamine, gradually breakdown or die. Dopamine is a chemical that sends signals to the brain to control movement. As these cells diminish and the dopamine levels decrease, the disease progresses and patients gradually lose control of their movements. While there is no cure currently available for Parkinson's disease, there are treatments available to control symptoms and improve quality of life. ...


Read More...
 

Stroke

A stroke occurs when there is a reduction in the flow of blood to the brain. The lack of blood supply may be the result of a blockage in an artery or a burst blood vessel in the brain. A stroke deprives brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. A stroke is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention by a medical professional. Prompt treatment can minimize damage to the brain and prevent further complications. ...


Read More...
 

Vertigo

Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or dizziness, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting, that occurs as a result of problems within the brain or the inner ear. People with vertigo feel as if their surroundings are moving although no movement is actually occurring. Vertigo is one of the most common health problems in the United States; it affects many adults during their lifetimes. ...


Read More...
 

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that results in recurrent seizures caused by disturbances in brain activity. Epilepsy may develop as a result of abnormal brain wiring, an imbalance in nerve signals, or changes in brain cells. In many cases, the cause of epilepsy is unknown. Sometimes, however, its origin may be traced to genetic predisposition, head injury, tumor, stroke, certain diseases, or prenatal brain damage. Symptoms of epileptic seizures may vary and only individuals who have experienced two or more seizures are considered to have epilepsy. Although seizures may be mild, all forms of epilepsy should be treated, as seizures may put individuals in danger during certain activities. ...


Read More...
 

Subdural Hematoma

A subdural hematoma is a blood clot that develops near the brain. These blood clots are known as subdural hematomas because they form under the dura, which is the protective covering of the brain. Hematomas usually require removal because they can compress brain tissue and cause life-threatening complications. In some cases, a hematoma can be successfully drained by creating a small perforation in the skull called a "burr hole." But, when the subdural hematoma is larger or more severe, an open surgical procedure known as a craniotomy is required. ...


Read More...
 

Transient Ischemic Attack

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when the blood flow to the brain stops for a brief period of time. A TIA is a stroke-like event caused by improper blood flow in the carotid artery. The carotid artery is located in the neck and it carries blood from the heart to the brain. When blood flow is disrupted or blocked within these arteries, stroke-like symptoms may occur. Symptoms of a TIA are similar to those of a stroke, but they do not last as long, as the blockage within the artery may break-up or dissolve. In some individuals, a transient ischemic attack may be a warning sign that a stroke may occur in the future. ...


Read More...
 

Tourette Syndrome

Tourette syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by repeated involuntary movements and vocalizations called "tics." Although not medically dangerous, it causes serious social and psychological difficulties for those who have it because of its unusual, often disabling, symptoms. Typical onset for Tourette's is between the ages of 3 and 9, with males 3 to 4 times more likely to be affected than females. ...


Read More...
 

Dizziness

Dizziness, which is a common complaint, encompasses a variety of sensations, and can occur for a variety of reasons. Although dizziness can have a benign cause, such as standing up quickly from a prone position, it may be a symptom of a serious disorder, such as a stroke. In order to determine causation, it is important to note the onset of dizziness, the particular sensation experienced, any concomitant symptoms, and the duration or recurrence of the episode. ...


Read More...
 

Aphasia

Aphasia is a communication disorder that leaves patients unable to effectively express or understand spoken or written language. The possibility of recovery from aphasia depends on its cause, which part of the brain is affected, and how extensive the damage is. There are many types of aphasia, and a patient may suffer from more than one type. Aphasia can result from physical or psychological trauma, or from a degenerative process. Aphasia has a variety of causes. Most commonly, the condition results from a stroke or progressive dementia. Other causes of aphasia may include: ...


Read More...
 

Balance Disorders

A balance disorder is a complex condition that causes unsteadiness and dizziness, and sensations of spinning, moving or floating. Part of the inner ear known as the labyrinth interacts with other body systems, including those of the eyes, bones and joints, to maintain balance. Normal balance requires the work of three sensory systems: the visual; the vestibular, which is located in the inner ear; and the somatosensory, which involves the muscular and skeletal systems. These systems, as well as the brain and nervous systems, can be the source of balance problems. When these systems do not function properly, vertigo, spinning, disorientation, trouble focusing the eyes, and poor balance may result. ...


Read More...
 

Central Pain Syndrome

Central pain syndrome is a neurological disorder affecting the central nervous system. While the exact cause of central pain syndrome is unknown, this condition often affects individuals with brain injuries, tumors, strokes, epilepsy, spinal cord injuries, or multiple sclerosis. The most common symptom of central pain syndrome is a burning sensation although painful symptoms may vary greatly as the potential causes of this condition also vary. The pain experienced by individuals with central pain syndrome is often constant and can be mild, moderate, or severe in intensity. Symptoms of central pain syndrome may disrupt an individual's daily routine and dramatically affect their quality of life. ...


Read More...
 

Cavernous Malformation

A cavernous malformation, also known as a cavernous angioma or cavernoma, is an abnormal collection of blood vessels that may occur within the brain or spinal cord. Cavernous malformations may occur anywhere in the body, but usually only produce symptoms when they are found in the brain and spinal cord. Some people with cavernous malformation may not experience any symptoms at all, while others may have serious symptoms such as severe bleeding in the brain, which can be life threatening. The exact cause of a cavernous malformation is unknown, however, in some cases, it may be a result of an inherited condition cause by a gene mutation. ...


Read More...
 

Headache

A headache is a common symptom that involves pain that is experienced in one or more areas of the head or face. Over 45 million people are affected by headaches each year and many of them include chronic headaches that last for weeks or months with no relief.

Headaches can be the result of a wide range of conditions and causes, including coughing, sneezing, fever, arthritis, depression, or even environmental changes. There are many different types of headaches, classified by the cause, location and severity of the pain. The most common types of headaches include: ...


Read More...

Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

A lumbar epidural steroid injection is a minimally invasive procedure for treating leg, buttock and lower back pain originating from the epidural space. The epidural space surrounds the dura, a membrane which protects the spinal cord and its nerves. The primary reasons for pain in this area are herniated or ruptured discs, stenosis, or sciatica all of which result in nerve compression. The pain may originate in any part of the lumbar region of the spine, including the coccyx, or tailbone, where it is referred to as caudal. ...


Read More...

Balance Disorders

A balance disorder is a complex condition that causes unsteadiness and dizziness, and sensations of spinning, moving or floating. Part of the inner ear known as the labyrinth interacts with other body systems, including those of the eyes, bones and joints, to maintain balance. Normal balance requires the work of three sensory systems: the visual; the vestibular, which is located in the inner ear; and the somatosensory, which involves the muscular and skeletal systems. These systems, as well as the brain and nervous systems, can be the source of balance problems. When these systems do not function properly, vertigo, spinning, disorientation, trouble focusing the eyes, and poor balance may result. ...


Read More...

Lumbar Percutaneous Discectomy

A lumbar percutaneous discectomy may be performed to remove herniated disc material that is pressing on nerves or the spinal cord. The goal of a lumbar percutaneous discectomy is to decompress the nerves by removing deviated disc material and disc fragments. It is a minimally invasive procedure that involves making a very small incision and inserting a tiny surgical needle between the vertebrae, into the middle of the disc. Disc material is removed and as a result, painful nerve pressure is relieved. ...


Read More...

Cervical Laminectomy

A cervical laminectomy is a surgical procedure that can effectively relieve compression of the spinal nerves and so reduce the pain of spinal stenosis. Cervical spinal stenosis is a condition that involves a narrowing of the spinal column in the neck area. It often produces pain, cramping, weakness or numbness in the neck, shoulders or arms. This condition can develop as a result of injury to, or deterioration of, the discs, joints or bones within the spinal canal. Because the vertebrae of the neck are more capable of movement than any other area of the spine and because they are not only responsible for protecting the spinal cord, but for supporting the skull, surgical repairs in this area are a delicate matter. ...


Read More...

Tourette Syndrome

Tourette syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by repeated involuntary movements and vocalizations called "tics." Although not medically dangerous, it causes serious social and psychological difficulties for those who have it because of its unusual, often disabling, symptoms. Typical onset for Tourette's is between the ages of 3 and 9, with males 3 to 4 times more likely to be affected than females. ...


Read More...

Dementia

Dementia is not a single disorder, but rather a combination of age-related symptoms involving a loss of mental skills and deteriorating brain function. Dementia literally translates to "deprived of mind," and may be the result of several different underlying conditions, some of which are treatable and some of which are not. Patients with dementia gradually lose memory, communication skills, the ability to reason, and the facility to complete the tasks of everyday living. ...


Read More...

Lumbar Facet-Joint Injections

Lumbar facet-joint injections are both a minimally invasive treatment for lower-back pain caused by inflamed facet joints, and a diagnostic tool to determine whether facet-joint inflammation is the source of the pain. Facet joints connect each vertebra to the vertebra above and below it. A facet-joint injection, administered either into the joint capsule or its surrounding tissue, combines a long-lasting corticosteroid with a local anesthetic. Although the anesthetic provides only very temporary pain relief, the corticosteroid reduces inflammation and can relieve pain for up to a few years. Enduring pain relief from the injection is diagnostically significant, indicating that the pain originates in the facet joint that received the injection. ...


Read More...

Migraine Headache

Migraines are chronic headaches that cause intense pain, and throbbing or pulsing sensations in the head. Along with severe head pain, some people also experience nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound. The pain and symptoms of a migraine may last from hours to days at a time. Most people experience recurring migraine headaches that may be triggered by stress, anxiety, hormonal changes, certain foods or changes in sleep patterns. Migraines are more common in women than men and they may develop as a result of genetic or environmental factors. Migraines can begin at any age, though most people experience their first migraine during adolescence. ...


Read More...

Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is a progressive motor system disorder that occurs when certain cells within the brain begin to degenerate or break down. In individuals with Parkinson's disease, the cells that produce a chemical called dopamine, gradually breakdown or die. Dopamine is a chemical that sends signals to the brain to control movement. As these cells diminish and the dopamine levels decrease, the disease progresses and patients gradually lose control of their movements. While there is no cure currently available for Parkinson's disease, there are treatments available to control symptoms and improve quality of life. ...


Read More...

Vertigo

Vertigo is the sensation of spinning or dizziness, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting, that occurs as a result of problems within the brain or the inner ear. People with vertigo feel as if their surroundings are moving although no movement is actually occurring. Vertigo is one of the most common health problems in the United States; it affects many adults during their lifetimes. ...


Read More...

Dizziness

Dizziness, which is a common complaint, encompasses a variety of sensations, and can occur for a variety of reasons. Although dizziness can have a benign cause, such as standing up quickly from a prone position, it may be a symptom of a serious disorder, such as a stroke. In order to determine causation, it is important to note the onset of dizziness, the particular sensation experienced, any concomitant symptoms, and the duration or recurrence of the episode. ...


Read More...

Stroke

A stroke occurs when there is a reduction in the flow of blood to the brain. The lack of blood supply may be the result of a blockage in an artery or a burst blood vessel in the brain. A stroke deprives brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. A stroke is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention by a medical professional. Prompt treatment can minimize damage to the brain and prevent further complications. ...


Read More...

Aphasia

Aphasia is a communication disorder that leaves patients unable to effectively express or understand spoken or written language. The possibility of recovery from aphasia depends on its cause, which part of the brain is affected, and how extensive the damage is. There are many types of aphasia, and a patient may suffer from more than one type. Aphasia can result from physical or psychological trauma, or from a degenerative process. Aphasia has a variety of causes. Most commonly, the condition results from a stroke or progressive dementia. Other causes of aphasia may include: ...


Read More...

Transient Ischemic Attack

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when the blood flow to the brain stops for a brief period of time. A TIA is a stroke-like event caused by improper blood flow in the carotid artery. The carotid artery is located in the neck and it carries blood from the heart to the brain. When blood flow is disrupted or blocked within these arteries, stroke-like symptoms may occur. Symptoms of a TIA are similar to those of a stroke, but they do not last as long, as the blockage within the artery may break-up or dissolve. In some individuals, a transient ischemic attack may be a warning sign that a stroke may occur in the future. ...


Read More...

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that results in recurrent seizures caused by disturbances in brain activity. Epilepsy may develop as a result of abnormal brain wiring, an imbalance in nerve signals, or changes in brain cells. In many cases, the cause of epilepsy is unknown. Sometimes, however, its origin may be traced to genetic predisposition, head injury, tumor, stroke, certain diseases, or prenatal brain damage. Symptoms of epileptic seizures may vary and only individuals who have experienced two or more seizures are considered to have epilepsy. Although seizures may be mild, all forms of epilepsy should be treated, as seizures may put individuals in danger during certain activities. ...


Read More...

Subdural Hematoma

A subdural hematoma is a blood clot that develops near the brain. These blood clots are known as subdural hematomas because they form under the dura, which is the protective covering of the brain. Hematomas usually require removal because they can compress brain tissue and cause life-threatening complications. In some cases, a hematoma can be successfully drained by creating a small perforation in the skull called a "burr hole." But, when the subdural hematoma is larger or more severe, an open surgical procedure known as a craniotomy is required. ...


Read More...

Lumbar Puncture

A lumbar puncture, also known as a spinal tap, is most often performed as a diagnostic procedure, but may also be performed as a means to administer anesthetic or chemotherapy medications. When a lumbar puncture is performed for diagnostic purposes, a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord, is withdrawn from the lower portion of the spine for analysis. Analysis of CSF can help detect the presence or absence of several serious diseases. These diseases include: meningitis, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome and certain cancers. ...


Read More...

Central Pain Syndrome

Central pain syndrome is a neurological disorder affecting the central nervous system. While the exact cause of central pain syndrome is unknown, this condition often affects individuals with brain injuries, tumors, strokes, epilepsy, spinal cord injuries, or multiple sclerosis. The most common symptom of central pain syndrome is a burning sensation although painful symptoms may vary greatly as the potential causes of this condition also vary. The pain experienced by individuals with central pain syndrome is often constant and can be mild, moderate, or severe in intensity. Symptoms of central pain syndrome may disrupt an individual's daily routine and dramatically affect their quality of life. ...


Read More...

Cavernous Malformation

A cavernous malformation, also known as a cavernous angioma or cavernoma, is an abnormal collection of blood vessels that may occur within the brain or spinal cord. Cavernous malformations may occur anywhere in the body, but usually only produce symptoms when they are found in the brain and spinal cord. Some people with cavernous malformation may not experience any symptoms at all, while others may have serious symptoms such as severe bleeding in the brain, which can be life threatening. The exact cause of a cavernous malformation is unknown, however, in some cases, it may be a result of an inherited condition cause by a gene mutation. ...


Read More...

Cervical Percutaneous Discectomy

Cervical percutaneous discectomy is a procedure that is performed to remove herniated or bulging disc material that is pressing on nerves or the spinal cord. The cervical spine is the portion of the spine that runs through the neck. When the nerves of the cervical spine are compressed, it causes pain and discomfort in the neck that may travel to the shoulder, arm and hand. The goal of a cervical percutaneous discectomy is to decompress the nerves by removing deviated-disc material and disc fragments. It is a minimally invasive procedure that involves making a very small incision and inserting a tiny surgical needle between the vertebrae, into the middle of the disc. Disc material is removed with the guidance of live X-ray imaging, and as a result, painful nerve pressure is relieved. ...


Read More...

Lumbar Sympathetic Nerve Block

A lumbar sympathetic nerve block is administered to both diagnose and treat pain in the lumbar (lower) region of the spine. It is used to determine whether the lumbar sympathetic nerves, which carry pain impulses from the lower extremities, are the cause of the pain, and, in some cases, serves to eliminate that pain altogether. During the procedure, medication is injected into or around the lumbar sympathetic nerves on one side of the body. ...


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Cervical Medial-Branch Block

A cervical medial-branch block is an injection administered to diagnose and treat neck, upper-back, shoulder and facial pain, and headaches. The procedure is designed to both relieve symptoms and diagnose their source. By deadening pain signals in the medial-branch nerves (which transmit pain signals from the facet joints to the brain), it is possible to determine whether a particular facet joint (which connects two vertebra) is the source of the pain. ...


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